4. Foreign Accent Syndrome
Foreign accent syndrome is a condition that is relatively rare and occurs when someone begins to speak his or her native language using a foreign accent. This is typically caused by a head injury or stroke that affects the speech portion of the brain.
5. Capgras Syndrome
Capgras syndrome is characterized by a person’s very delusional belief that someone they know, usually a spouse, family member or friend has been replaced by an identical impostor or one of several doubles. This belief becomes a reality for them, but with proper medication the beliefs can be reversed.
6. Reduplicative Paramnesia
Reduplicative paramnesia occurs when a person holds the very delusional belief that a place or location has been duplicated and that it exists in two or more places at the same time, or that it the location been ‘relocated’ to a completely different site. This delusion is known to occur on occasion with Alzheimer’s patients.
7. Alien Hand Syndrome
Alien hand syndrome occurs when one holds the belief that their hand does not belong to oneself and that it has its own separate life. The person can still feel the hand and has all normal sensations, but believe that it acts “of its own will” and has its own agency. People who have this syndrome will often personify the limb and name it.
8. Jerusalem Syndrome
Jerusalem syndrome is a mental occurrence that deals with the presence of religiously themed overly obsessive ideas and delusions that lead a person to visit the city of Jerusalem. This condition is not restricted to any particular religion as it has occurred across multiple religions.
9. Fregoli Syndrome
Fregoli syndrome is named after Leopoldo Fregoli; an Italian actor well known for his ability to make quick changes in appearances during his stage act. This syndrome occurs when someone has the delusion of mis-identification in which they characterize various people as persecutors or believe that regular everyday people can assume the mask of a stranger or that several different people they know are in actuality the same person who is in disguise.